A steroid is an enzymatically active, biocompatible organic molecule with four carbon rings arranged in a particular linear molecular structure. It is synthesized by means of the reaction between an enzyme and an amino acid. The term “steroid” actually refers to the fact that some species of animals produce a substance called “sosterol,” which can cross-cross-links other substances in a complex manner. Steroids also have two primary biological roles: as vital components of cell membranes that regulate fluid dynamics; and as signal molecules used by other cells to elicit biological responses. Learn more about steroids outlet their other services by visiting their official sites.
The four carbon rings of a steroid nucleus are connected via oxygen atoms to adjacent amino acid residues. The steroid molecules have a “reactive” surface, which can be thought of as a ring or sphere that recognizes a certain geometric pattern. When this geometric pattern – a lattice – is stimulated by an external stimulus, the molecule that binds to it becomes excited, releasing a large amount of chemical energy. This release of chemical energy is accompanied by a rapid increase in the intracellular rate of enzyme activity, leading to the production of a large number of free radicals (free radical damage) and subsequent inflammation. These effects typically lead to the formation of a tumor.
The formation of tumors can be stimulated by the activation of biological stressors in the body. These stressors can be external, such as exposure to carcinogens, or internal, such as inflammation in the intestines, the kidneys, the skin, or the vagina. They can cause changes in the concentration and/or levels of steroids in the bloodstream, or the structural architecture of the cell membranes. If the abnormalities produced are at the level of the cell membranes, then the disturbance is often termed “cystitis.”
The cellular processes involved in the generation of tumors involve the sequential execution of four steps. First, the intracellular metabolic machinery develops a series of reaction systems that drive the synthesis of steroids. Next, the steroids are transported to the intracellular vesicles, where they act as chemical messengers, transporting the active metabolite, and its substrate into the cytoplasm of the cells for conversion to its final destination. Finally, the steroids are released into the blood stream, where they act on the target tissues, causing damage, inflammation, and irritation.
The production of tumors can be blocked in different ways. Most commonly, the interruption occurs when the inactive estrogen hormone (LH) becomes bound to the aromatizing to estrogen receptor (AR), preventing its action. This observation led to the development of a new class of pharmaceuticals called aromatase inhibitors. Similarly, the binding of testosterone to the androgen receptors results in the decreased binding of the testosterone to the receptors, which, in turn, causes the decreased release of the hormone. Aromatase inhibitors, such as flutamide and metformin, have been shown to improve the functioning of the liver and may prevent or diminish the occurrence of obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease. Some research has indicated that these same compounds may also prevent the formation of new blood clots, decrease cholesterol levels, increase energy levels, and improve brain function.
The main reason behind the resistance of the steroid molecules to metabolism is that some steroid hormones contain two or three hydrophobic amino acid residues, which limit the access of the ligand to the receptor. The hydrophobic residues in steroids are analogous to “tunnels” through which the steroid and its receptor cannot communicate. Since the presence of these “tunnels,” or gradients of steroid receptors, directly affects steroid action, the suppression of these tunnels by the administration of anabolic steroids has been used as an approach to corticosteroid resistance.